Great info, interested to read of the others involved in the design and modification.
Can he get us parts kits?
A very good Russian friend of mine, Ruslan Chumak, who is also a famous Russian author of small arms and subject matter expert, recently published this excellent article, titled "Reborn Amazing story AK-47 № 1," has given me his permission to post it on this forum in its entirety. Ruslan has written several excellent books and numerous articles on different aspects of Soviet/Russian military history and the associated weapons, arsenals and repair facilities. I have translated his article to English but did not Americanize specific terminology the Russians use with the Kalashnikov. His published article is truly unique new information about the machine of Kalashnikov AK-47 № 1. Before his new publication was released, no one in the world was aware of this new information, except Ruslan of course. Writing this article was very interesting for Ruslan and he plans to continue his work and study of the history of the Kalashnikov assault rifle. In this article, there are many new and unknown facts.
A little information about Ruslan since most of you probably don’t know him personally, or maybe just know him by reputation. Ruslan N. Chumak: Candidate of Technical Sciences (2007, Tula State University). After graduating from Penza high military artillery engineering school (specialty - "Small arms"), he served over 24 years in Soviet / Russian Federation Army. Particularly, in The Main Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (GRAU). Dr. Chumak was a lecturer in Tula high military artillery engineering school. He holds a military rank of Colonel.
Credit and recognition for all the pictures: Kalashnikov assault rifles for the article were provided by the Museum of Artillery, Russia, Saint-Petersburg (the Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps (Saint-Petersburg).
I suggested to Dr. Chumak that he become a member of this forum so he can directly address any questions related to his article that anyone may have, but at a minimum I will provide him the link to this post, so he can view any discussion Americans may have to his article. Additionally, he did tell me that he will be happy to answer any questions American collectors may have related to his article but his response will not be in real time. There is a time difference, coupled with his busy schedule, so his answers will be provided in a timely manner considering those factors (approximately 1-2 days) and relayed through me.
The amazing story of AK-47 No. 1 from the collection of the Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Communications.
In this material we will tell about the technical appearance of the Kalashnikov AK-47 No. 1 assault rifle and its changes during factory and field tests of 1947-1948.
The hall named after M.T. Kalashnikov in the Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineering Troops and Communication Troops ... This is where the very first Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifle with serial number No. 1 is shown here, the multi-million progeny of which was released in the USSR, Russia and other countries, For almost 70 years, he has been engaged in combat and has fought all over the world.
Automatic AK-47 №1 from the collection of VIMAIV and VS. Right view
This machine is the pride of the museum and our national treasure. His image was replicated many times in dozens of books and hundreds of articles and so rooted in the minds of people that it never occurred to anyone to doubt the proposition that the AK-47 Kalashnikov assault rifle number 1 initially looked somehow different. In principle, the well-known outline of events during which AK-47 No. 1 appeared, does not give special reasons for doubts. Briefly remind readers the course of these events.
After the completion of the first stage of the competition for the creation of an automaton for a 7.62-mm cartridge mod. 1943, which took place in June 1947, among the samples selected by the test site for revision and the next – this time final – test, included the automatons M. T. Kalashnikov, A. A. Bulkin and A. A. Dementieva. None of them in the presented form corresponded to the tactical and technical requirements, but the overall prospects, the level of reliability and combat effectiveness of the machine guns made it possible to believe that during the subsequent refinement the designers would be able to bring their products to the level required by the army. Also, it was specifically stipulated that the designers should conduct the revision of the automata strictly in accordance with the recommendations of the landfill, because “... if the authors are given complete freedom of action, the automata will not be finalized, but the new versions produced will.
Automatic AK-47 №1 from the collection of VIMAIV and VS. Left view
For this work, designers were given very little time, less than six months - until December of the same 1947, when advanced automatic machines were supposed to arrive at the landfill for regular tests. Understanding that this stage of testing is decisive, and objectively evaluating the design of the AK-46 No. 2 machine recommended for revision, M. T. Kalashnikov and his first assistant A. A. Zaitsev concluded that despite the objective advantages of their machine gun over rivals for reliability, in its current form, it is unlikely to be approved by the proving ground, and cosmetic refinement will not eliminate the main complaints against it. And they decided to break the ban of the landfill to carry out significant improvements to the machine and completely redo its design. At the same time, they planned to radically re-arrange the weapon as a whole and some of its main components, in particular, based on the best technical solutions implemented in the AK-46 No. 2 machine gun and other machine guns that had a positive reputation in previous tests. By this, the designers expected to achieve a simplification of the device of the machine, increasing its reliability, maintainability and ease of development among the troops.
Marking of the model AK-47 and its serial number is №1 (on the left). Automatic AK-47 №1. Middle part, right view (right).
In the new version of the machine gun, M. T. Kalashnikov decided to use an one-piece open-top receiver box connected to the butt and closed with a removable lid, similar to that used in his AK-46 No. 1 machine and some others. The original trigger mechanism developed by M.T. Kalashnikov, on the recommendation of the landfill, was replaced by a new one, designed on the basis of the trigger mechanism of the Czechoslovak rifle ZH-29. There was also introduced a fuse in the form of a turning curtain, closing the window for the passage of the bolt carrier in the receiver cover and other changes. At the same time, the locking mechanism in the form of a light rotating bolt, which proved itself in the AK-46, remained unchanged in the main parts. Interesting fact: in the AK-47 machine № 1, Kalashnikov used a slightly modified store from the AS-44 serial Sudaev machine gun. The practice of using the Kalashnikov shop from the AS-44 machine gun was quite an established one: on the AK-46 No. 1 and AK-46 No. 2 machines, the AS-44 shops, modified by external elements, were also installed. This made it possible to minimize the appearance of delays during the tests due to the store – a phenomenon very characteristic of the weapons of those years, and the store from AS-44 was well developed in production by plant No. 536 (Tula arms factory), worked reliably and with good results passed military tests together with Sudayev's machine gun. AK-46 No. 1 and AK-46 No. 2 automatons also installed shops from AS-44, modified by external elements. This made it possible to minimize the appearance of delays during the tests due to the store – a phenomenon very characteristic of the weapons of those years, and the store from AS-44 was well developed in production by plant No. 536 (Tula arms factory), worked reliably and with good results passed military tests together with Sudayev's machine gun.
Automatic AK-46 №1 (from the collection of VIMAIV and VS)
As a result of the work, the Kalashnikov assault rifle, as it was believed, acquired the now familiar construction and appearance, was designated as AK-47 and the serial number was No. 1.
Automatic AK-46 №2 (from the collection of VIMAIV and VS)
And from this point on, ambiguities begin. The problem is that the appearance and design of the AK-47 No. 1 assault rifle, which is stored in the collection of the Museum of Artillery, differ markedly from the “canonical” ones, which are known from the test report of the assault rifles that occurred in December 1947 - January 1948. In particular, AK-47 No. 1 has a firing mechanism, which provides automatic fire from the rear sear, and the firing is carried out in the usual manner for all - a rotating trigger. His handguard is much longer and thicker than the serial machine. An unusual gas-dynamic device is installed on the barrel with six (three on each side) transverse through-holes.
Shops to automatic machines: on the left there is a shop to the automatic machine Sudaeva AS-44, on the right there is a shop to the automatic machines AK-46 No. 2 and No. 3. Items from the collection VIMAIV and VS
Until now, the information published in the book “Encyclopedia of Kovrov Weapons” has been used to explain these features. It states that in November 1947 the AK-47 No. 1 submachine gun was tested at the plant, during which it showed very good results in reliability and survivability - only 0.14% of delays and 2 breakdowns were made for 15,000 shots. According to the results of factory tests, the design of the machine was slightly improved, and the plant manufactured two more machines: AK-47 No. 2 and AK-47 No. 3 (with a metal folding butt) to participate in the test site. And it was precisely these automata that already had our usual look and design. And the indication in the book on the improvement of the AK-47, produced on the basis of factory tests, gave reason to believe
The author had doubts about this interpretation of the evolution of the technical appearance and design of the AK-47 assault rifle No. 1. These include, first of all, the registration number of the landfill on the machine ("6-72op"), as well as a completely serviceable, unworn barrel bore. But the weapon that was shot at the factory for a full survivability of 15,000 rounds cannot have an unworn barrel, this is obvious. The number of the landfill on the machine indicates that it was undergoing some tests. But why did the test site need an automaton that had exhausted the vitality during the factory tests that had been done before? You do not need to be a special visionary to understand: the barrel of the machine gun was replaced for some work with him, but when, who and why did it, it was not clear. However, these doubts were not critical and the author referred to secondary events.
However, in this part of the history of the AK-47 No. 1, everything turned out to be quite different from what it was believed until now. And they helped to figure it out, as is most often the case, the documents of the GAU test site (NIPSMVO) stored in the archives of the museum. A unique document that sheds light on the entire history of AK-47 No. 1 - the report of the landfill, dated March 6, 1948. It is called “Report No. 109 on the issue of experimental work on finding ways to improve the accuracy of the Kalashnikov assault rifle chambered for 1943”. The report summarizes the work carried out with the AK-47 No. 1 assault rifle in January-February 1948, and was executed by engineer-major Vasily Fedorovich Lyuty and officers-captain Boris Leopoldovich Kannel. The names of these officers are well known to people interested in the creation of a Kalashnikov, they played an important role in its creation and testing.
In accordance with the report, the events around the AK-47 no. 1 developed as follows. After analyzing the results of field tests of machine guns from December 1947 - January 1948, during which the Kalashnikov machine gun was chosen to make the series, the staff of the NIPSMVO concluded that, in its current form, the machine does not meet the tactical and technical requirements for accuracy of automatic fire. bursts. It should be noted that other automata that participated in the competition - the designs of Bulkin and Dementieva - also did not satisfy the TTT for the accuracy of firing with bursts. But in all other parameters, technical and operational, the military was organized precisely by a Kalashnikov assault rifle, which was the main reason for his choice. In this way, the Kalashnikov assault rifle received a "start in life" without being brought up to the state required by the accuracy of the group - an important parameter that directly affects combat effectiveness. This decision was largely forced, because the work on the creation of automatic machines had been going on for four years without any visible result. It was impossible to continue further, and as a result, it was decided to choose a Kalashnikov machine gun, and to improve its accuracy in the process of preparing for mass production. NIPSMVO was involved in this work, where the machines were tested. and its accuracy is improved in the process of preparing for mass production.
Kalashnikov AK-47 No. 1 machine gun in its original form (according to NIPSMVO report - “Kalashnikov machine gun - not changed”)
It should be noted that the test school, which had been formed at the GAU test site by the middle of 1940, had a lot of experience in working with various types of weapons. Test site officers were professional gunsmiths with special engineering education, had the highest qualifications, allowing not only to analyze the behavior of weapons during firing and to identify the causes of certain delays, but also to form correct and effective recommendations for their improvement and implement them. Opportunities for this were available: a machine shop operated at the site, capable of producing single samples of weapons of almost any complexity. Also at the site there was a design office, in which officers with specialized engineering education worked (more precisely, served as design engineers). Most of the officers of the test site - both designers and testers - were trained at the small armament department of the artillery academy of the Red Army, which at that time was headed by a prominent Soviet military engineer and theorist of numerous works on the design and design of weapons Academician A. Blagonravov. Such officers were the engineer-major V. F. Lyuty and the engineer-captain B. L. Kannel, involved in the work on the improvement of the AK.
Drawing of the barrel to the repaired and improved AK-47 No. 1 machine gun (pictured above)
Some thoughts on the improvement of the AK-47 at V.F. Lutogo were still at the stage of his tests: the members of the Scientific and Technical Council of the test site were in a meeting where it was decided which machine would be chosen as the winner of the competition (as we know, the Kalashnikov ) said the deputy. Head of the 1st division of the USV GAU Lieutenant Colonel I. Ya. Litichevsky. Since the design of the Kalashnikov machine gun had already been approved and could not be changed in the part that affected reliability, Luty and Kannel chose other ways to improve the accuracy of his shooting. The first way they decided to explore was to improve the applicability of the machine. The testers revealed that the length of the butt (the distance between the shoulder rest and the fire control knob) is small and inconvenient when firing, the back plate slides off the shoulder, The inclination of the fire control handle is too great. In addition, it was found that the shape of the forearm does not provide the convenience and strength of holding the machine with the hand during automatic shooting. All these factors in varying degrees influenced the accuracy of shooting and the testers decided that optimizing them could solve the problem.
View of the new forearm on the AK-47 №1
Secret AK-47 No. 1 ”begins to open. December 1947 - January 1948 did not participate. The Kalashnikov No. 2 and No. Assault rifles It was an awesome decision to place one. But he had another fate - to be born again. They were repaired and modernized.Kalashnikov No. 1 assault rifle 2 assault rifle (with a wooden butt). This is beyond doubt.
Drawings of elements of the new forearm to AK-47 No. 1, developed at NISMBO
To conduct research on the AK-47 No. 1 machine, the test sites of the landfill replaced the worn out barrel with a new, more massive (weight increased by 70 g) improved shape. He had a smaller number of transitions in diameter, which, according to the idea, was supposed to contribute both to improving the accuracy of shooting and to increasing his service strength, which, at the barrel of an ordinary AK-47, was not enough for test officers. Muzzle brake due to its inefficiency decided not to install. In addition, the machine extended the stock by 25 mm, increased the height of the butt plate and supplied it with transverse corrugation, reduced the inclination of the handle from 1230 to 1050. In addition, the machine was fitted with an elongated forearm, which was abutted with a front part just behind the gas the camera. Handguards had an increased width and protrusions for a more durable retention from upward displacement under the effect of recoil. Thus, the AK-47 No. 1, now stored in the Museum of Artillery, No. 1, received its characteristic form of the forearm.
According to testimonial test shooters, the changes introduced significantly improved the ease of holding the machine gun, which had a positive effect on the accuracy of automatic shooting from the stop. When shooting at 100 m, the group accuracy over the automaton of unchanged design was as follows: lying down from the stop using single shots - 11.8%, lying down from the stop in short bursts - 31.4%, lying down from the hand in short bursts - 18.5%. The overall result of this part of the work was the conclusion that with the listed changes the machine satisfies the TTT with respect to the accuracy of shooting single shots (R100 = 15 cm, with a given TTT R100 = 15 cm) and came very close to meeting the requirements for accuracy of fire with automatic fire from the stop (R100 = 37 cm, for a given TTT R100 = 35 cm). However, it was not possible to fully identify at this stage of the work effective ways to improve the accuracy of firing with bursts from the machine gun. At the same time, it became clear that the solution to this problem does not lie in improving the application of weapons.
Gas-dynamic device "stabilizer" on the trunk of the AK-47 No. 1 submachine gun and its drawing
Thus, Lyutym and Kannel were faced with the need to carry out the second stage of work, and the AK-47 No. 1 assault rifle machine faced the next stage of structure transformation. This time, the testers decided to test on the machine a special stemming gas-dynamic device in the form of six transverse through-holes drilled in the area of the muzzle. They were guided by the fact that a similar device used on the AS-44 machine gun made it possible to significantly improve the accuracy of shooting from all positions, to the point that it became more accurate than PCA! However, experiments have shown that being implemented on AKs, such openings do not lead to a similar positive effect. Investigating the question more deeply, the testers concluded that the reason for this was the insufficient length of the exhaust ducts in the barrel. The problem was solved by installing a coupling on the barrel with elongated vapor channels (in the landfill documents this device is called “stabilizer”), which are equal in length to the channels of the АС-44 machine gun. Shooting from an automaton showed a very high efficiency of the stabilizer - the accuracy of shooting in bursts of lying on the arm improved in R100 by 41%, and in terms of the dispersion bands in the vertical and horizontal - almost 2 times! Despite such an impressive result, it does not contain any special secrets. The holes for removal of gases led to the discharge into the atmosphere of a part of the powder gases in the barrel, which led to a decrease in the ballistic impulse and, consequently, a decrease in recoil energy, and this directly affected the behavior of the weapon when firing, making it more calm and controllable. The price for improving the accuracy of fire thus obtained is to reduce the initial velocity of the bullets - from 715 to 650 m / s. Also, despite the fact that the testers abandoned the installation on the automatic muzzle brake, the stabilizer to some extent performed its function, further reducing the impact of recoil on the arrow. So on the AK-47 No. 1 machine, the characteristic gas-dynamic device, known from the photo, appeared and affirmed.
The drawing of the firing mechanism that provides shooting from the rear sear
Analysis of the results of shooting with a stabilizer showed that, despite a significant improvement in the accuracy of automatic continuous shooting, the scattering character itself was very uneven - the stripe turned out to be elongated in height almost two times larger than the horizon. In addition, when firing in short bursts, a clear “two-center” emerged - the holes were grouped into two local groups, one of which was at the aiming point, the second - to the side and above it. The first group of holes corresponded to the first shots of the queue, carried out by pulling the trigger with a fixed bolt. The second is the next in line shots that occurred at a time when the machine gun had already shifted under the influence of the recoil of the first shots. The same “dual-centering” effect was also observed on other samples of automata with a trigger trigger mechanism. Fierce and Kannel took up the fight against this effect.
Studies have shown that the deviation of the automaton from its initial position in the second and subsequent shots is caused mainly by the impact of the moving system in the extreme forward position, which occurred very vigorously. At first they tried to move the bolt strike site to the other side of the weapon (on the left wall of the receiver), but this decision did not lead to positive results.
By that time, it was known that Sudayev’s AS-44 assault rifles (including those lightened up to AK weight), having a percussion trigger, which ensured the start of firing by lowering moving parts located in the “rear sheptal”, do not form a dual center and have good accuracy of fire. bursts of all provisions. And then the testers installed the AK-47 No. 1 assault rifle ... a mechanism for carrying out firing from the rear sear! The mechanism of this was simple in design, its installation in the machine did not require reworking the regular trigger. The described mechanism is also located on the AK-47 machine № 1, stored in the Museum of Artillery.
In addition, the testers took steps to ensure the arrival of the hammer to the drummer before hitting the bolt carrier in the extreme forward position. This was achieved in two ways: by organizing the shot on the rollout of the bolt, i.e., at the moment when, after locking the bolt, it had not yet reached the extreme front position and smoothly braked by the powder gases entering the gas chamber, and also by introducing the design of the automatic mechanical brake device of the bolt carrier, interacting with the tapered portion of the rear part of the piston. The result of the shooting showed that in the case of roll-out, the automation works extremely unevenly, on incomplete kickbacks, and on 3-4 shots fails due to incomplete retreat of the slide frame. The reason turned out to be simple - too much powder gas was consumed for braking and reversing the bolt carrier and it was impossible to increase the diameter of the vent hole. The use of a mechanical braking device led to similar results: the automatics worked with attenuation and on a 5—8 shot refused completely. But most importantly, both of these solutions - shooting on the roll out and the introduction of a mechanical frame brake - turned out to be ineffective, since they did not eliminate the dual-centric. As a result, the mechanical braking device of the bolt carrier was removed and instead of it, a conventional receiver pad was installed on the machine, which is still on it. did not eliminate the bicenter.
View on the sear automatic firing of the firing mechanism, which provides firing from the rear sear
But the use of the shooting mechanism from the rear whisper markedly improved the accuracy of the battle in bursts when shooting from the hands, although it was not possible to fully assess the effect of its introduction into the weapon design because the mechanism was not adjusted to the descent force (it was very significant). This worsened the accuracy of shooting single shots, although only slightly.
The overall result of the introduction of the above improvements to the machine gun was as follows: the changes significantly improved the accuracy of firing in short bursts from the prone position and from the knee and made the machine gun in this regard equivalent to the PPSh submachine gun. The testers found that the accuracy of firing from a machine gun having a trigger that provides firing from the rear sear could be further improved, and due to this fit into the TTT. All these changes did not require a significant alteration of the machine and did not alter its other characteristics at all. Interestingly, in the final positions of the report, Luty and Kannel separately indicated that in weapons intended mainly for automatic firing, which is an automatic weapon, it would be preferable to have a trigger mechanism providing firing from the rear sear. The use of trigger USM, in their opinion.
View of the mechanical brake device of the barrier frame mounted on the gas tube
What was the fate of the improvements proposed by Luty and Kannel in early 1948 and tested on AK-47 No. 1, which radically changed its appearance? Unfortunately, not one of them was introduced into the design of the Kalashnikov assault rifle, which was being prepared for the production of an experimental series, and in 1948 it went into production in almost the same form that it had during the test runs of December 1947 - January 1948. However, the work of test officers VF Lyutoy and B. L. Kannel did not disappear: some of the proposals developed by them were gradually introduced into the design of the AK machine after 1949, already at the stage of its mass production. For example, the fire control knob with a reduced inclination entered the design of the AK in 1951, a wider bottom forearm with protrusions for a more durable retention of weapons was introduced into the design of a Kalashnikov assault rifle at the stage of its modernization, embodied in 1959 into an AKM assault rifle. Other proposals for the improvement of the AK, developed by Luty and Kannel, did not find application in serial Kalashnikovs.
Drawing mechanical brake device bolt
And how effective were these unrealized proposals? Could they have a future? Was it a mistake not to introduce these offers? From the standpoint of modern knowledge, all these questions can be answered in the affirmative. In modern automatic rifles and automatic rifles, massive barrels are widely used, which, compared with barrels of ordinary thickness, provide better accuracy and longer duration of continuous shooting without overheating. The use of a “stabilizer” on the barrel – transverse apertures in its muzzle, which ensured a decrease in the ballistic impulse and recoil energy – turned out to be a non-trivial, albeit expected positive proposal. This solution can be used in sport-type automatic weapons, which does not need to have a greater flatness of the trajectories of bullets and their penetrating action. Well, shooting from the rear whisper, as the report data show, is a very promising way to improve the accuracy of firing with bursts and at the same time not so much reduce the accuracy of firing with single shots to consider such a design of the USM design as “archaic”.
AK-47 No. 1 bolt carrier with a new gas piston designed to interact with a mechanical braking device. The arrow shows the cone-shaped section of the piston interacting with the brake rollers.
And we are completing the AK-47 No. 1 dive into the mystery. The machine gun itself will still be in its personal, glittering mirrors, the showcase of the Museum of Artillery, and every day please visitors with its appearance. This machine will never become the same as it was originally designed by designer Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov, but will always remain a monument not only to his inventor, but also to two talented officers of the GAU test site - VF Lyutomu and B. L. Kannel, who invested a lot of work and intelligence so that he appears to the world.
Kalashnikov AK-47 No. 1 machine gun in a repaired and improved form (according to the report of the NPSMVO - “A modified Kalashnikov machine gun with improved accuracy”)
How did the fate of these talented people? Very, very differently ... According to the memoirs of A. A. Malimon, employee of the NIPSMVO, after the described events, engineer-captain Boris Leopoldovich Kannel continued to serve at the training ground as the head of the weapons automation laboratory. In 1959, on the eve of the dismantling of the landfill, he served as head of the central control laboratory of weights and measures. Despite the fact that B. L. Kannel had a sharp, quick-tempered and unrestrained temper, he reached the rank of "engineer lieutenant colonel" at the training ground. Nothing is known about the future of this talented person.
View of the first page of report No. 109 of NIPSMVO, 1948. The report is kept by the collection of VIMAIV and VS
The life of Vasily Fedorovich Luty was completely different. The bright personality of this person is worthy of embodiment if not in the novel, then in the story for sure. A graduate of the faculty of small arms of the Red Army Artillery Academy of 1941, a student of the leading Soviet school of weapons design, academician A. A. Blagonravov, he came to serve at the GAU training ground on the eve of the war and with its beginning engaged in hard work to provide the army with reliable small arms. In 1944, engineer-captain V.F. Lyuty went to the front with the SG-43 machine gun undergoing tests and in the spring of 1944, as part of the 8th Army of the 3rd Ukrainian Front, went with it with front-line roads from Krivoi Rog to Nikolaev and Odessa, for that he was awarded the medal "For Military Merit." Returning from the front to the test site, he took part in the creation of new types of weapons: in collaboration with N. M. Afanasyev and V. S. He made a very successful LAD light machine gun for the TT pistol cartridge. Only a combination of circumstances that did not depend on the weapon did not allow this pattern to go into series.
By the time of the beginning of the second competition for the design of automata (mid-1946), V.F. Lyuty held the position of head of the Department for Scientific Testing Work of Group Weapons as part of the 5th Division of the Landfill (Scientific Test on Small Arms). Shortly after the end of the competition, in the middle of 1948 he was appointed to the position of the Scientific Secretary of the test site, and in March 1949 he was transferred from the test site to Moscow, to the Central Research Institute-3, to the post of senior researcher. At the new place, his service did not work: Fierce entered into a sharp conflict with his leader, General Goryainov, but did not calculate the forces in this struggle. In some way, his opponent Luty was able to bring the relevant authorities to him, and in April 1951 he was arrested, accused of the “political” article 58 (58—10 Part 1)
Engineer-Captain V.F. Lyuty (left) and Engineer-Captain B.L. Kannel (right)
“Propaganda or agitation calling for overthrowing, undermining or weakening Soviet power or committing certain counter-revolutionary crimes”) and in February 1952 were sentenced to 10 years with deprivation of military rank and defeat in rights. This was followed by camps, which always (and at that time especially) were an extremely difficult test for a person, even with a very strong character and health. Lutomu had to cut and raft wood, to do other hard work. But Vasily Fedorovich was not discouraged: his extensive technical knowledge and skills attracted the attention of the camp management, and he was sent to the organization of the NKVD, which was engaged in the design of forestry mechanization tools (there were such departments in this multifaceted department). After the death of Stalin, Fierce began the process of his rehabilitation. In 1955 he achieved success he was released, reinstated in the army and rank, and even returned to serve in NII-3! He participated in many works on improving small arms and anti-aircraft missiles, defended his thesis, as a candidate of technical sciences, became the author of several inventions and scientific works. He moved to Kiev, taught at the anti-aircraft missile military school. In 1969, V.F. Lyuty retired to the reserve, but he did not leave scientific work and went to work in one of the scientific research institutes, where he worked until 1990. Until the end of his life, Vasily Fedorovich remembered his participation in the work on the AK, maintained relations with MT Kalashnikov. On December 16, 1990, after a serious illness, Vasily Fedorovich Lyuty died.
Last edited by Bunker9939; 11-16-2018 at 10:45 PM.
Great info, interested to read of the others involved in the design and modification.
Can he get us parts kits?
Last edited by scottyb; 11-12-2018 at 05:17 PM.
needs moar AK
thanks Nick! i have never see pics of it taken apart or inside shots.
awesome to see the carrier out and inside the shell.
will read this through w/ my coffee in the morning.
i bet your buddy has some great knowledge about this stuff.
not taking new work
So the first rifles had pressed and pinned barrels and the rate reducer had yet to exist.
needs moar AK
Thanks for sharing and please let your friend know we are truly greatfull for sharing with us as well.
I think this is the rifle they keep mentioning when they were trying out ways to improve the ak47 during trials. You can see the German influence in this for sure. The way the bolt locks up
Last edited by BR7.62; 11-15-2018 at 02:56 PM. Reason: spelling...
not taking new work
Thanks for sharing.
Thank you so much Nick what a great read
"Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote"
cool, gotta come back and read it all
Awesome post Bunker. I really enjoy reading your articles.
Great info on the earliest version of the AK.
There were many other trials variations as well it seems.
The locking system of the AS-44 rifle is similar in design to the bolt lowering and raising mechanism not to the German locking system of the MP-44 rifle, but to the locking system of the Tokarev SVT rifle or even more to the locking system of the 14.5-mm anti-tank rifle of the Simonov model 1941 (PTS). Simonov designed this locking system in 1936. In 1934-1949 in the Soviet Union many automatic weapons with a locking system with a bolt bias were designed (numerous Soviet weapons).
Soviet weapon constructors learned very well how to design a weapon with a bolt tilting system and often used this locking system in their weapons. Drawing your attention to the fact that until 1941 the Germans did not design a weapon with a locking system with a bolt bias. They began to do this after they captured in battle the Soviet self-loading SVT rifles having such a locking system. After that, they designed their assault rifle MP-44 (StG-44) with a locking system with a skewed bolt.
Therefore, there is no German influence in the locking system of the AC-44 rifle. However, Soviet influence on the German rifle surely happened.
Below are photos of the Simonov 14.5 mm self-loading anti-tank rifle, model 1941, locking system. You can compare this 1936/1941 Soviet system with the 1942 German rifle locking system.
ah-hah, great info. thanks for pointing that out.
not taking new work